The project will then focus on a study on fair and fair trade in Brazil and will hold a second forum in December 2018. Brazil is one of the countries that, according to the latest European Commission report, has resorted to a large number of potentially restrictive measures. The document to be sent to the EU Ombudsman – a channel through which civil society can question the functioning of the European Commission – states that the EU`s executive body signed the agreement without carrying out a full assessment of its future impact on the environment. Once the texts are definitively and legally revised, they will have to be translated into all the official languages of the EU and Mercosur.  The texts are then submitted by the European Commission for approval by the Council of Ministers of the European Union. Unanimity is required within the Council. If the Council is adopted, it will sign the agreement and pass it on to the Mercosur countries and the European Parliament. An EU Association Agreement must also be approved by national parliaments of all EU member states. Ratification of the agreement by the national parliaments of mercosur countries is also necessary.  Together, it is a process that, in itself, can take many years.  However, in the EU, the trade part of the agreement (and certain elements of the preamble, institutional and final provisions) can be provisionally implemented as soon as Mercosur ratifies and the European Parliament approves. The European Commission may also decide to present the trade pillar as a separate trade agreement. If the Mercosur countries and the Council agree, the separate trade agreement must not be approved by the parliaments of the EU Member States (since trade falls under the exclusive competence of the EU), the approval of the European Parliament is sufficient.
 What remains of the Association Agreement still needs to be approved by all national parliaments and cannot be implemented provisionally.  “The European Commission has ignored its legal obligation to ensure that the trade agreement with the Mercosur Group of South American countries does not lead to social, economic, environmental and human rights violations,” the letter states. Valdis Dombrovskis, Commissioner for Trade, said in an interview on the occasion of his first week since his replacement of Irish politician Phil Hogan that he acknowledged that it was now unlikely that the trade deal with Mercosur, which was guaranteed after 20 years of haggling, would now be unlikely. The EU is negotiating a free trade agreement with Brazil as part of the EU negotiations on the association agreement with Mercosur countries (including Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay). “First of all, the pact, which is an association agreement [including trade, political and cooperation pillars], must be ratified by countries so that it can enter into full force. However, if the European Commission, with the support of the European Parliament and its Member States, separates the free trade agreement from the Association Agreement, it can try to implement its trade component and leave aside the political issues of the pact, including the environment, i.e. the provisional implementation of the agreement. It all depends on what the European Commission is going to propose to Parliament,” said Filipe Gruppelli Carvalho, an analyst at Eurasia Group, an American political risk analysis consultant with offices in five countries, including Brazil.
The scope of the agreement is very broad.  In addition to tariffs, it includes rules of origin, trade aid, health and plant health measures (SPS), technical barriers to trade (OTC), services and investment liberalization, competition policy, subsidies, state-owned enterprises (SOEs), trade and sustainable development.